PEOPLE – TO – PEOPLE DIPLOMACY TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION
Donny Bagus Prasetya
International Cooperation could define as the common efforts of international community towards international situations and transnational issues with aims of mutual benefit, such commerce and world peace, such counter – terrorism. International Cooperation emerged from its character of interdependency in which collective action has seen as best way to find best solutions. International Cooperation have not dismissed since long time ago before and after the born of nation – state. The born of nation – state defined the International Cooperation as collective action among nations pursued mutual benefit in economic or/and against international problem that threat the international public. International situation means different power and resources of each country, therefore they need to be survived by cooperation. Now days, the coming of transnational and globalization concepts push the International Cooperation in other actors to contribute. The fact that something the government can not cover public interests and abolish their rights, the need of non government institution has came. The era of new actor in International Cooperation begin since 19th century, which we called as Non Government Organizations (NGOs) and they have been existed in many countries. People – to – people diplomacy as new ways of among states public communications, provide dialog and emerge mutual understanding among them and collective actions without government role or minimum access of government role. NGOs existence in international cooperation encouraged the controversy, mainly between NGOs and Government.
Government inability to cover its society interest and injustice actions, push some people in NGOs go down to help them advocacy their rights. Today, NGOs go with their mission towards each country, but the main role of government has challenged them to implement their values. NGOs only campaign what the problems are. Like two NGOs, Green Peace and Amnesty International. However, Green Peace can not play full role towards environment damage or illegal logging because they has faced with some interest from government body to pursue economic fact and Amnesty International can not fully change the condition of human right and poverty in some country because they have challenged with the government system. Main challenging of both NGOs is in country legal law, however nation – state still the main actor of decision maker. The opposite situation is in democracy country. Democracy let public and NGOs to advocacy their interest and rights, but the final decision still on government hand, at least the democracy countries give NGOs one step to involved in public problem and corporate globally towards international problem that threat human existence. In the other hand, we can conclude that the involvement of NGOs in international corporation give public a space to advocacy their interest and the corporation could touch the grassroots level because of the ability and NGOs job in small areas.
The forest cutting in Indonesia could not solve by Indonesia government only or local NGOs only. International cooperation with global NGOs would increase the support of International public towards environment problem; this support became important for them because Indonesia has big forest which contributed clean air for the world. The terrorism and the threat from the using of nuclear weapon have attracted world attention. North Korean nuclear weapon is one of them, government – to – government cooperation and dialog between United States and North Korean could not show good signal because there was not legal agreement between both countries. As independent body, NGOs should have big contribution by people – to – people dialog. Better situation, we found between United Sates and Iran which United States NGOs and Iran NGOs opened public dialog. The dialog would contribute to both country mutual understanding and the prevention actions could be done. Beyond of States Corporation, the international NGOs Corporation also helps the domestic worker and labors in Southeast Asian from the dangerous of human trafficking and violence. ILO and NGOs move the actions for the protection of domestic workers from forced labor and trafficking in Southeast Asian. The NGOs would organize the domestic worker, such as in Hong Kong. The unions such as IMWU, KOTKIHO, and FDWGU nonetheless have an important role to play in advocacy and educational efforts, as well as direct assistance to members. In Philippines is SUMAPI, NGO working on protection of migrant working women and children. In Indonesia is Rumpun Tjoet Nyak Dien (RTND), conducts media campaigns and policy advocacy on behalf of domestic workers. But the main challenges facing these organizations are fund raising, organizational management, and dismissal of members by their employers on grounds of union activity. The involvement of ILO would effectively to solve and prevent these problems, because of the existence of this International Organizations under authority of United Nations and have support from many countries. From the entire descriptions above, people – to – people diplomacy play main role in international cooperation in which the governments could not cover some people interest and its society rights. Reference from domino’s theory, unsolved problem in one country would spread in its neighbors, the collective actions of international society is needed.